— proposed by the Ponomar Project
The complete range of characters used in Slavonic fonts can be subdivided into the following 10 categories:
|1a) Base Characters – Upper and Lower Case Letters
1b) Non-Slavonic modern Cyrillic characters, included for modern font families
|2a) Superscript Case (letter titla and superscript letters)
2b) Double Titla
|3) General Titla Glyphs (non-letter titla)|
|4) Alternate Letter Forms (discretionary forms, including truncated forms)|
|6) Diacritical Marks|
|7a) Standard Punctuation
7b) Ornamental Punctuation
|8) Other Typographical Symbols, including Editorial Marks|
|9) Number Symbols|
|10) Typicon and Rubrical Symbols|
— Characters marked with a pink background are problematic and require resolution.
— Characters marked with a blue background are not included in the current Unicode Standard and must be accessed as discretionary substitutions or by other means; documentation of these characters is provided via links.
— Characters marked with a yellow background are not included in the current Unicode Standard and need to be included; documentation of these characters is provided via links.
— Characters marked with a green background are modern characters which do not rightly belong to the authentic Slavonic character set (although some of these symbols may be found in a few pre-1917 printed sources); these have been added for the sake of compatibility with modern typesetting, particularly for use in academic journals, but should not be included in period reproduction fonts.
|Church Slavonic characters||
| The TITLA (superscript characters) are problematic because by tradition MOST of the characters are accompanied by the POKRYTIE (see below). In the Ustav Era, there was a considerable amount of variation in the inclusion of the POKRYTIE (often varying within a given manuscript), but by the time of the Poluustav Era, the tradition had stabilized into the letter forms presented in the second column.
Unicode suggests that ALL the combining letters be implemented without the POKRYTIE. However, because the majority of the letter exist ONLY with the POKRYTIE, we suggest implementing these characters in their traditional composite form. (This could be left up to the typeface designer.) <HAVE WE CHANGED OUR PHILOSOPHY ON THIS MATTER?>
These characters are all labeled as “COMBINING” letters. This means that they have “zero width” and are placed over the preceding character without noticeably advancing the cursor. (If the superscript letters are implemented separately from the POKRYTIE, this would requre a double combining character sequence, which could potentially be problematic for spacing, sorting, typographical errors, etc.; thus, the Ponomar Project advises against Unicode’s approach of all superscripts without the POKRYTIE.) <DITTO>
|2DF6||◌ⷶ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER A||Primarily Ustav Era fonts, but also found in a few Poluustav texts; uncommon.||◌ⷶ||◌ⷶ||◌ⷶ||◌ⷶ||◌ⷶ|
|2DE0||◌ⷠ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER BE||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷠ||◌ⷠ||◌ⷠ||◌ⷠ||◌ⷠ|
|2DE1||◌ⷡ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER VE||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only (i.e., this character was used in all eras before the Synodal Slavonic Era); uncommon.||◌ⷡ||◌ⷡ||◌ⷡ||◌ⷡ||◌ⷡ|
|2DE2||◌ⷢ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER GHE||Used infrequently in ALL eras of Church Slavonic.||◌ⷢ||◌ⷢ||◌ⷢ||◌ⷢ||◌ⷢ|
|2DE3||◌ⷣ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER DE||Commonly used in ALL eras of Church Slavonic.||◌ⷣ||◌ⷣ||◌ⷣ||◌ⷣ||◌ⷣ|
|2DF7||◌ⷷ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER IE||Primarily Ustav Era fonts, but also found in a few Poluustav texts; uncommon.||◌ⷷ||◌ⷷ||◌ⷷ||◌ⷷ||◌ⷷ|
|2DE4||◌ⷤ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER ZHE||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; very common usage.||◌ⷤ||◌ⷤ||◌ⷤ||◌ⷤ||◌ⷤ|
|2DE5||◌ⷥ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER ZE||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; very common usage.||◌ⷥ||◌ⷥ||◌ⷥ||◌ⷥ||◌ⷥ|
|A675||◌ꙵ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER I|| This infrequently-used character is currently in Stage 4 of balloting for inclusion in
the Unicode standard; see n3748 for more information. NOTE: This is the IZHE TITLO, not a DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT/KENDEMA (see below). Its inclusion is crucial in the publication of period literature from the Ustav and Poluustav eras. (It is also the upper element of the character “izhitsa with izhe-titlo” and the two hatch marks over the letter “YI”.)
It is important for type designers to make a visual distinction betweeen the DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT (KENDEMA) and the IZHE TITLO. The Kendema has a more horizontal appearance, with the two lines at an angle closer to the horizontal plain, while the Izhe Titlo has the two lines more vertically alligned. In most printed sources there is little or no distinction, but in the manuscript tradition it is usually quite clear which glyph is intended.
|2DE6||◌ⷦ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER KA||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷦ||◌ⷦ||◌ⷦ||◌ⷦ||◌ⷦ|
|2DE7||◌ⷧ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER EL||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷧ||◌ⷧ||◌ⷧ||◌ⷧ||◌ⷧ|
|2DE8||◌ⷨ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER EM||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; rather common usage.||◌ⷨ||◌ⷨ||◌ⷨ||◌ⷨ||◌ⷨ|
|2DE9||◌ⷩ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER EN||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷩ||◌ⷩ||◌ⷩ||◌ⷩ||◌ⷩ|
|2DEA||◌ⷪ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER O||Commonly used in ALL eras of Church Slavonic.||◌ⷪ||◌ⷪ||◌ⷪ||◌ⷪ||◌ⷪ|
|2DEB||◌ⷫ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER PE||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷫ||◌ⷫ||◌ⷫ||◌ⷫ||◌ⷫ|
|2DEC||◌ⷬ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER ER||Used infrequently in ALL eras of Church Slavonic.||◌ⷬ||◌ⷬ||◌ⷬ||◌ⷬ||◌ⷬ|
|2DED||◌ⷭ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER ES||Commonly used in ALL eras of Church Slavonic.||◌ⷭ||◌ⷭ||◌ⷭ||◌ⷭ||◌ⷭ|
|2DEE||◌ⷮ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER TE||In the standard superscript form, it is a commonly-used character used in “Pre-Nikonian” texts (all eras before the Synodal Era). It is also used in ALL eras of Church Slavonic (including the Synodal Era) as a superscript (slightly modified in appearance) over the letter OMEGA, forming the composite character OT.||◌ⷮ||◌ⷮ||◌ⷮ||◌ⷮ||◌ⷮ|
|2DF9||◌ⷹ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER MONOGRAPH UK||Primarily Ustav Era fonts, but also found in a few Poluustav texts; uncommon.||◌ⷹ||◌ⷹ||◌ⷹ||◌ⷹ||◌ⷹ|
|2DEF||◌ⷯ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER HA||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; very common usage.||◌ⷯ||◌ⷯ||◌ⷯ||◌ⷯ||◌ⷯ|
|2DF0||◌ⷰ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER TSE||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷰ||◌ⷰ||◌ⷰ||◌ⷰ||◌ⷰ|
|2DF1||◌ⷱ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER CHE||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷱ||◌ⷱ||◌ⷱ||◌ⷱ||◌ⷱ|
|2DF2||◌ⷲ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER SHA||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷲ||◌ⷲ||◌ⷲ||◌ⷲ||◌ⷲ|
|2DF3||◌ⷳ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER SHCHA||“Pre-Nikonian” usage only; uncommon.||◌ⷳ||◌ⷳ||◌ⷳ||◌ⷳ||◌ⷳ|
| Two superscript characters have given Slavic typographers a considerable amount of confusion, in part because of the decision by Unicode to accept the South Slavic names of these characters (which is different from the North Slavic nomenclature), and in part because the value of these characters is inconsistent depending on a number of factors that influence the literary tradition. Furthermore, each of these two characters have both combining and non-combining forms, giving us a total of four characters which MUST be clearly identified and implemented by type designers and typesetters. Sorting out this confusion is a challenge, but the follow is the correct distribution of these four characters (discussed in detail below):
1) COMBINING CYRILLIC PAYEROK (ч-like form) is placed at U+A67D.
2) CYRILLIC PAYEROK (non-combining ч-like form) is placed at U+A67F.
3) COMBINING CYRILLIC YEROK (s-like form) is placed at U+033E.
4) CYRILLIC YEROK (non-combining s-like form) is placed at U+2E2F.
Several early grammars have been surveyed, and there seems to be no precise consistency in usage between the PAYEROK and the YEROK. From observations, the following conclusions can be made:
1) Southwestern Rus and Eastern European usage (outside Muscovite jurisdiction and influence): In the older printed sources, there were two symbols for replacing the semi-vowels (hard and soft signs): EROK and PAYEROK. While some sources called the ч-like form “PAYEROK” and the s-like form “YEROK/YERIK”, a few grammars switched the terminology. One thing is certain: the usage of the two symbols was never a matter of “one symbol represents the soft sign and the other represents the hard sign”, but the grammars made it clear that their usage was interchangeable. We can safely conclude that whichever symbol was used, it could represent either the hard or soft sign, depending on the word and its spelling (either hard or soft consonants). (I.e., it was a “contextual variant”.) From the orthographic vantage point, the southwestern Rus sources preferred to use the ч-like form roughly 10:1 over the s-like form. It seems that the PAYEROK was a regional (West Slavic) orthographic tradition that lasted for a couple centuries but died out when Muscovite Slavonic exerted a heavy influence on (or overpowered) the southwestern tradition. (The PAYEROK was never used in Synodal Era typography, but only in Poluustav texts derived from the West Slavic literary tradition.)
2) Muscovite Russian usage: Only one form was ever used: the s-like form, which was called “YEROK (YERIK)”. In all instances, it strictly represented only the hard sign.
|A67D||◌꙽||COMBINING CYRILLIC PAYEROK|| The position U+A67D is called COMBINING CYRILLIC PAYEROK and according to Unicode it indicates an omitted YER (see below). This is the COMBINING “ч-like” superscript form which was used in early Southwestern Rus and Eastern European (non-Muscovite Russian) texts. (See also the following character.)
The COMBINING CYRILLIC PAYEROK (U+A67D) is an abbreviation mark which is used in all eras of Slavonic typography to replace either the HARD SIGN or the SOFT SIGN; what it specifically represents depends on the era and regional source of the text, as well as the context of the spelling of the word it is used with. Its usage for one or the other cannot be precisely defined or enforced. Let us simply state that it represents BOTH, depending on context.
There is considerable variation in regard to the actual placement of this character. Many printed sources place this above a consonant (mostl final, but sometimes medial), which makes the character a “zero width” COMBINING glyph (or just barely combining). Many other sources, however, clearly place this character to the upper right of a preceding consonant, which makes this an independent “narrow width” (non-combining) character. (In some books, the placement is ambiguous enough to make it difficult to determine which version to use.) In general, the NON-COMBINING form (see below) seems more prevalent in printed texts.
|A67F||ꙿ||CYRILLIC PAYEROK||The position U+A67F is used for CYRILLIC PAYEROK. This “ч-like” superscript glyph is the NON-COMBINING “stand-alone” form of the previous character.||ꙿ||ꙿ||ꙿ||ꙿ||ꙿ|
|033E||◌̾||COMBINING VERTICAL TILDE (YERIK)||The position U+033E is called COMBINING VERTICAL TILDE and is described by Unicode as “used for CYRILLING YERIK (YEROK), indicates an omitted YER”. This is the COMBINING “s-shaped” superscript form. This is the only form used in Synodal Era typography, where it strictly represents an omitted HARD SIGN. (See also the following character.)||◌̾||◌̾||◌̾||◌̾||◌̾|
|2E2F||ⸯ||VERTICAL TILDE (YERIK)||The position U+2E2F is called VERTICAL TILDE and is used for CYRILLIC YERIK (YEROK). This “s-shaped” superscript glyph is the NON-COMBINING “stand-alone” form of the previous character.||ⸯ||ⸯ||ⸯ||ⸯ||ⸯ|
|2DFA||◌ⷺ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER YAT||Primarily Ustav Era fonts, but also found in a few Poluustav texts; very rarely used.||◌ⷺ||◌ⷺ||◌ⷺ||◌ⷺ||◌ⷺ|
|2DFB||◌ⷻ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER YU||Primarily Ustav Era fonts, but also found in a few Poluustav texts; uncommon.||◌ⷻ||◌ⷻ||◌ⷻ||◌ⷻ||◌ⷻ|
|2DFC||◌ⷼ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED A||Ustav Era fonts only.||◌ⷼ||◌ⷼ||◌ⷼ||◌ⷼ||◌ⷼ|
|2DFD||◌ⷽ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER LITTLE YUS||Primarily Ustav Era fonts, but also found in a few Poluustav texts; uncommon.||◌ⷽ||◌ⷽ||◌ⷽ||◌ⷽ||◌ⷽ|
|2DFE||◌ⷾ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER BIG YUS||Ustav Era fonts only.||◌ⷾ||◌ⷾ||◌ⷾ||◌ⷾ||◌ⷾ|
|2DFF||◌ⷿ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED BIG YUS||Ustav Era fonts only.||◌ⷿ||◌ⷿ||◌ⷿ||◌ⷿ||◌ⷿ|
|2DF4||◌ⷴ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER FITA||Primarily Ustav Era fonts, but also found in a few Poluustav texts; uncommon.||◌ⷴ||◌ⷴ||◌ⷴ||◌ⷴ||◌ⷴ|
|2DF8||◌ⷸ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER DJERV||Ustav Era fonts only.||◌ⷸ||◌ⷸ||◌ⷸ||◌ⷸ||◌ⷸ|
|These eight characters are currently in Stage 4 of balloting for inclusion in the Unicode standard; see n3748 for more information. While their existence has been scantily documented in only a few rare USTAV manuscripts, the Ponomar Project is not convinced that these are anything more than scribal anomalies, since each of these characters can only be found once or twice throughout the entire corpus of Slavonic literature. (To clarify our position: We feel that they do not pass a “benchmark test” based on frequency of occurence, which would lend credibility to their “canonical existence” and warrant their inclusion in the Unicode Standard.) Based on the lack of sufficient “proof of existence”, we suggest that designers of Church Slavonic fonts should not feel obligated to include these “theoretical” characters in their fonts, or at least restrict their inclusion to the Ustav family of fonts. (It is the opinion of the Ponomar Project that these theoretical characters were introduced in order to complete the entire basic alphabet in superscript form.)|
|A674||◌ꙴ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER UKRAINIAN IE||◌ꙴ||◌ꙴ||◌ꙴ||◌ꙴ||◌ꙴ|
|A676||◌ꙶ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER YI||◌ꙶ||◌ꙶ||◌ꙶ||◌ꙶ||◌ꙶ|
|A677||◌ꙷ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER U||The COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER U is similar to the plain “у,” rather than the ꙋ.||◌ꙷ||◌ꙷ||◌ꙷ||◌ꙷ||◌ꙷ|
|A678||◌ꙸ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER HARD SIGN||The COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER HARD SIGN differs from the PAYEROK, which has a similar function.||◌ꙸ||◌ꙸ||◌ꙸ||◌ꙸ||◌ꙸ|
|A679||◌ꙹ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER YERU||◌ꙹ||◌ꙹ||◌ꙹ||◌ꙹ||◌ꙹ|
|A67A||◌ꙺ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER SOFT SIGN||The COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER SOFT SIGN differs from the PAYEROK, which has a similar function.||◌ꙺ||◌ꙺ||◌ꙺ||◌ꙺ||◌ꙺ|
|A67B||◌ꙻ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER OMEGA||◌ꙻ||◌ꙻ||◌ꙻ||◌ꙻ||◌ꙻ|
|A69F||◌ꚟ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED E||◌ꚟ||◌ꚟ||◌ꚟ||◌ꚟ||◌ꚟ|
|2DF5||◌ⷵ||COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER ES-TE||With the exception of the COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER ES-TE, Double Titla have not been included in the Unicode standard. Their inclusion needs to be placed in a PUA (Private Use Area).
ALEKSANDR: & YURI: Unicode has also encoded a Combining Ligature Es-Te, but we believe that this codepoint (2DF5) should be deprecated. See the section below on Ligatures.
|[COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER DE-I]|
|[COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER DE-IE]|
|[COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER DE-EN]|
|[COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER DE-O]|
|[COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER ZHE-IE]||(Found in the Ostrog Bible of Ivan Fedorov, 1581.)|
|0487||◌҇||COMBINING CYRILLIC POKRYTIE||NIKITA: The COMBINING CYRILLIC POKRYTIE (U+0487) is used only with letter titlos. This glyph (a zero-width character) is placed over a superscript letter in abbreviated words, and never appears solely by itself (except to demonstrate its form in text books). The proper “letter titla” have finally been included in the latest version of the Unicode Standard (see the superscript letters above), however, it should be kept in mind that not all the superscript letters are traditionally accompanied by a POKRYTIE.
ALEKSANDR & YURI: In historical texts (including the manuscript tradition) the use of titlo, vzmet and pokrytie is entirely interchangeable. Contrary to Unicode specifications, lettered titli can occur with and without a pokrytie (or vzmet, more rarely, titlo). Either the titlo or the vzmet can occur in nomina sacra, abbreviations or numerals. The distinction between titlo and vzmet is purely typographical; the vzmet is not used in Synodal typography. The codepoint of the Titlo should not be used to encode a Vzmet character and vice versa.
|0483||◌҃||COMBINING CYRILLIC TITLO (NUMBER TITLO)|| The COMBINING CYRILLIC TITLO (U+0483) looks identical to the following character (COMBINING CYRILLIC VZMET; see below), but it is functionally not the same. Unicode suggests using this character as a “NUMBER TITLO” for typesetting numerals, NOT as a “LETTER TITLO” for use with words. It is essential for typographers to understand this distinction and typeset texts accordingly.
The word “TITLO” is borrowed from the Greek “τίτλος” (see the Wikipedia article). While this glyph is presented solely as a “zero-width” combining mark which centers over lower case letters, traditional typography requires four separate positions. Without the use of sophisticated combining character technology (which positions the combining character both horizontally and vertically according to pre-programmed ANCHORS written into the coding of TrueType and OpenType fonts), correct and authentic typesetting cannot be accomplished. These four positions are:
a) centered over a lower case letter
b) centered over an upper case letter (higher and slight more to the left)
c) centered over TWO lower case letters
d) centered over TWO upper case letters
*** Do we need to adopt the same dual anchor system as mentioned below? ***
In the Ustav Era (only), TITLA of varying widths were used for different purposes or for abbreviating words and numbers of varying widths (see the COMBINING OVERLINE and the COMBINING DOUBLE TILDE below). While contexts varied somewhat, a SHORT TITLO (the standard width) was generally used over a single letter or over the place of abbreviation, and a LONG TITLO was used over the whole word or a wide numeral. For all other eras, the COMBINING CYRILLIC TITLO (NUMBER TITLO) as presented here is used exclusively.
|COMBINING CYRILLIC VZMET (LETTER TITLO)|| The COMBINING CYRILLIC VZMET (U+A66F), which is also called the “general titlo” (общое титло) and is shaped in the form of a “bar” (взмет), looks identical to the previous character (see above), but it is functionally not the same. Unicode suggests using this character as a “LETTER TITLO” for typesetting abbreviations and nomina sacra, NOT as a “NUMBER TITLO” for use with numerals. It is essential for typographers to understand this distinction and typeset texts accordingly.
The COMBINING CYRILLIC VZMET has two different placements, which need to be implemented by means of an “attachment trigger”. (Alternately, see the following character, which would eliminate the need for triggers.) All vowels and consonants should have an “Anchor A” centered over the base character, and an “Anchor B” above the upper right edge of the base character (see diagram 1), which will allow superscript characters to attach to two different places, depending on which “attachment trigger” is used.
1) In all Synodal era texts, the COMBINING CYRILLIC VZMET (LETTER TITLO) is placed so that it balances evenly over a single base character, by means of the “attachment trigger A”.
2) In Poluustav and Ustav texts, the VZMET frequently needs to be placed so that it balances evenly over two letters. This is accomplished by means of the “attachment trigger B”.
*** OR: Instead of using triggers, use the following character for balanced titla. This character needs further discussion. ***
|COMBINING OVERLINE (LONGA)|| The COMBINING OVERLINE (U+0305) can be used can be used for two possible functions:
1) This character may be used for balancing a GENERAL TITLO over two characters (see option 2 for the previous character).
2) It may be used in Ustav fonts (only) to present a slightly wider (or a medium-length) version of the COMBINING VZMET (LETTER TITLO) to be placed directly over two preceding letters, or balanced over two characters (similar to option 1, but a wider version). [However, there is some argument to support this being used for Ustav Era 2-digit numerals instead of for words, based on manuscript evidence.]
*** This character needs further discussion. ***
Undocumented, but included by Kostić et al. (2009).
|0360||◌͠◌||COMBINING DOUBLE TILDE||The COMBINING DOUBLE TILDE is a long-bar character that may be used in Ustav fonts (only) to present a wide version of the COMBINING VZMET (LETTER TITLO) when it balances over two or three letters. [However, there is some argument to support this being used for Ustav Era large (3- and 4-digit) numerals instead of for words, based on manuscript evidence.]||◌͠◌||◌͠◌||◌͠◌||◌͠◌||◌͠◌|
|Regarding the variants: Thinking about this problem lead me to the following understanding of what Unicode will probably tell us:
“These variants are similar to the Latin cases were we can have open and closed ‘a’ or different forms of ‘g’ and hence should be handled through alternatives or stylistic sets.”
I think that an appropriate rejoinder would be emphasis the fact that the situation is not like in the Latin where these forms are truly stylistic differences, but similar to Mongolian where they are actual orthographic differences.
|Cyrillic Small Letter VE Variant 1|
|Cyrillic Small Letter DE Variant
[LOWER CASE LONG-LEGGED DE]
|The “SHORT-LEGGED DE” has not yet been proposed for inclusion in the Unicode standard, but its inclusion is necessary for historically accurate texts. (See above.)|
|Cyrillic Small Letter O Variant
[CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER NARROW O]
|(For Nikita’s comments, see PART I.)
ALEKSANDR & YURI: This is the narrow variant of the letter On, which occurs in the Ustav and Poluustav traditions, including Synodal-era publications. It is proposed to encode the “narrow On” as a Variation Sequence. Its inclusion is critical for the authentic reproduction of early printed literature. In the Poluustav period its usage is roughly 50 per cent of all instances of the letter On in printed books. It is not merely an orthographic variation, but a frequently used character. It may occur both in stressed and unstressed positions. It also serves as the first part of the diagraph Uk.
|Cyrillic Small Letter Es Variant 1||This is the wide variant of the lowercase Slovo. It occurs in a wide variety of important texts, including the Trebnik of Metropolitan Peter Mogila and the Ostrog Bible. We propose to encode this variant as a Variation Sequence.|
|Cyrillic Small Letter Te Variant 1||This is the tall variant of the lowercase Tverdo. It occurs in a wide variety of important texts, including the Trebnik of Metropolitan Peter Mogila and the Ostrog Bible. We propose to encode this variant as a Variation Sequence.|
|Cyrillic Small Letter Te Variant 2||This is the “three-masted” variant of the lowercase Tverdo. It occurs in a wide variety of sources from the Ustav and Poluustav recensions, including the Ostrog Bible. We propose to encode this variant as a Variation Sequence.|
|Cyrillic Small Letter Monograph Uk Variant 1||This is a variant form of the Uk which occurs in a set of Muscovite publications. We propose to encode this variant as a Variation Sequence.|
|Cyrillic Small Letter Hard Sign Variant 1||This is the tall variant of the Hard Sign, which appears in manuscripts as well as the Poluustav print tradition. We propose to encode this variant as a Variation Sequence.|
|Cyrillic Small Letter Yat Variant 1||This is the tall variant of the Yat, which appears in manuscripts as well as the Poluustav print tradition. We propose to encode this variant as a Variation Sequence.|
|Symbol for Marks Chapter Variant 1||These four variants appear only in Poluustav typography.|
|Symbol for Marks Chapter Variant 2|
|Symbol for Marks Chapter Variant 3|
|Symbol for Marks Chapter Variant 4|
Alternate forms used only in Puluustav fonts:
[ա/д] լ է զ ը թ ժ խ
Discretionary alternate (historical) forms – not encoded as base characters.
Truncated forms used only in Puluustav fonts:
[ա/д] կ գդե հ ճմյ ձ ղ ի
|Discretionary alternate forms – not encoded as base characters. The truncated forms are used in Poluustav fonts which have lengthy ascenders and descenders, to avoid “character collision”, where (for example) the descender portion of a character might collide or intersect with the ascender, diacritical mark or superscript character in the following line of text. Traditionally, truncated forms were used at will by the typesetter to avoid such collisions. (This is also why the short-legged version of the letter DE exists as a historical variant.) – See: SAMPLE1, SAMPLE2|
|ր||[CYRILLIC LIGATURE A-UK]||Ligatures have not been included in the Unicode standard. Their inclusion needs to be placed in a PUA (Private Use Area).|
|ց||[CYRILLIC LIGATURE EL-UK]||Typically used when abbreviating the words “Аллилуїя” (Alleluia) and “Лука” (used in the back of the book of the Gospels in tables, when referring to readings by the Evangelist St. Luke).|
|[CYRILLIC LIGATURE EM-ER-KA]||This is an anomalous ligature because it combines three letters in an abbreviated word: “имѧрекъ”. It is occasionally found in Ustav and Poluustav manuscripts. See EXAMPLE.|
|ւ||[CYRILLIC LIGATURE TE-VE]|
|փ||[CYRILLIC LIGATURE TE-RE]|
|0486||◌҆||COMBINING CYRILLIC PSILI PNEUMATA (or just PSILI)||The COMBINING CYRILLIC PSILI PNEUMATA (U+0486) is used in Church Slavonic not as a form of “rough breathing mark” (see the article at Wikipedia), but as a visual indicator of an initial vowel – at the beginning of a word. It is a zero-width character, and different eras of Slavonic script have some distinctive details that the typographer needs to be aware of.
1) Ustav Era: Although conclusive evidence has yet to be presented, it does seem likely that the PSILI PNEUMATA never retained the “H” or “rough breathing” sound of the Greek language, quite possibly because the sound was already obsolete in the contemporary pronunciation of the Greek language. Certainly the sound was not indigenous to any of the Slavic dialects, and the mark was only adopted to indicate an initial vowel. In the Ustav manuscript tradition, the shape is slightly different (turned on its side, as if the symbol has been rotated 90 degrees anticlockwise, appearing much like a comma).
2) In Synodal Slavonic typography (ONLY), the psili over a CAPITAL letter is different from that over a lowercase letter. (It is symmetrical in its shape, not leaning a bit to the right, as the lower case form does.) This difference is handled using glyph substitution tables in OpenType.
The shape of this zero-width character, as it was proposed to the Unicode Standard, is wrong as it appears in modern typefaces; it properly has a rounded shape, similar to a comma, placed as a diacritical mark over an initial vowel. Slavonic typographers are obligated to correct the shaping in order to use the font properly.
|0485||◌҅||COMBINING CYRILLIC DASIA PNEUMATA (or just DASIA)|| The COMBINING CYRILLIC DASIA PNEUMATA (U+0485), a form of “rough breathing mark” (see the article at Wikipedia), is not convincingly documented in Church Slavonic texts, but appears to be only theoretical (or it was merely a scribal variant of the PSILI PNEUMATA above). According to those who presented this character for inclusion in the Unicode Standard, it was used when writing the Old Church Slavonic language (Ustav Era) of the southern recension, and became obsolete long before the introduction of printed texts. If it was indeed a valid character, its usage was either localized in early south-Slavic texts, or it never caught on and became a well-used character.
The shape of this zero-width character, as it was proposed to the Unicode Standard, is wrong as it appears in modern typefaces; it properly has a rounded shape, similar to a backwards comma, placed as a diacritical mark over an initial vowel. Slavonic typographers are obligated to correct the shaping in order to use the font properly. It should also be confined to Ustav Era fonts. (See: SAMPLE1.)
YURI: It would seem that some Russian recension textbooks would suggest that the “dasia” is also placed over Greek words, see for example, “Краткая грамматика церковно-славянского языка новаго периода, курсъ элементарный” by S. Miropol′skij (7th edition, Петроградъ, 1916, p. 4): “Придыханий два тонкое (псилѝ, зва́тельцо) и густое (даси́я). Первое ставитель надъ всѣми гласными въ началѣ словъ; второе употреблятся надъ гласными же въ началѣ словъ греческихъ: hypakoì.” I am not certain of the validity of this statement. I have a complete scanned copy of this book.
|0301||◌́||COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT (OXIA)||◌́||◌́||◌́||◌́||◌́|
|00B4||´||ACUTE ACCENT||This is a non-combining accent used for display purposes only, such as in typesetting grammar books.||´||´||´||´||´|
|0300||◌̀||COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT (VARIA)||◌̀||◌̀||◌̀||◌̀||◌̀|
|0060||`||GRAVE ACCENT (VARIA)||`||`||`||`||`|
|0311||◌̑||COMBINING INVERTED BREVE (KAMORA)||The KAMORA (U+0311) should not be confused with the COMBINING CYRILLIC PALATALIZATION (0484, below). — TEMP: (I noticed that we’ve also encoded the KAMORA at U+0302, COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT. The circumflex is a pointed accent, much like in French, and it does not have an equivalent function as the Cyrillic KAMORA, which is rounded instead of pointed. I do not think that this is a correct usage, nor should this codepoint should be used for KAMORA.)||◌̑||◌̑||◌̑||◌̑||◌̑|
|1FCE||◌῎||GREEK PSILI AND OXIA (ISO)
0486 + 0301
|1FCD||◌῍||GREEK PSILI AND VARIA (APOSTROPH)
0486 + 0300
0486 + 0311
|This is the sequence used over the WIDE OMEGA in forming the exclamation “oh!”||◌||◌||◌||◌||◌|
|0484||◌҄||COMBINING CYRILLIC PALATALIZATION|| This zero-width character (U+0484), which is found in the Ustav Era only, is the COMBINING CYRILLIC PALATALIZATION, and should NOT be used for the
KAMORA (0311). Instead, it is a palatalization (softening) mark (basically a SOFT SIGN TITLO) which has two closely-related applications:
1) It rests over the right side of three letters (Г, К and Х) and softens them. In this usage it does not attach or combine with the characters, but is used only as a separate diacritical mark. [It is interesting to note that these same three characters in Greek, when doubled, take on a nasal quality: NG, NK, and NKH. One has to wonder if this is merely coincidental or if there is a genuine linguistic connection.]
2) It combines with five letters (Д, Л, М, Н and Р) and likewise softens them. Three of these composite characters (CYRILLIC LETTER SOFT DE/EL/EM, but not EN and ER), have been recently added to Unicode (see above), defying Unicode’s own system of logic of not encoding composite characters with diacritics. (They probably should not have been encoded.)
This glyph is not used in the printed tradition of Church Slavonic, but is a character belonging solely to the Ustav manuscript tradition and in technical transcriptions (especially modern transliterations). It can be transliterated as “j” (Eastern European usage), and it represents the beginning of a diphthong or a softening of a consonant. When used with the Cyrillic letters DE, EL and EM, the character should trigger the composite characters by means of contextual substitution; otherwise it is a separate diacritical mark.
|0306||◌̆||COMBINING BREVE||This is present in the Slavonic character set as a glyph which is used for “canonical decomposition” of the character “Й”, CYRILLIC LETTER SHORT I (above). Its only usage is to demonstrate the diacritical mark in text books. It is not equivalent to the COMBINING CYRILLIC KAVYKA below, nor is it to be used as such by font designers or typographers.||◌̆||◌̆||◌̆||◌̆||◌̆|
|030F||◌̏||COMBINING DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT (KENDEMA)|| This appears to be the same as the IZHE TITLO, but it is not. It is a stress mark, particularly for the dual number. It was extensively used in Poluustav manuscripts, but in the printing tradition it is found only in a few very early published books.
In printed sources, it’s usage was almost entirely restricted to the words for “two” and “both”, as well as the aorist word for “was”: бѣ. But in the manuscript tradition its usage was idiosyncratic, and varied from one source to another, making it difficult to define its precise contextual value. (Some scribes also used it as an accent over the number three, as well as for the pronouns “this’ and ‘that’ [сыи, сей, тыи, той].) See SAMPLE1, but also note that it appears next to a word having the IZHE TITLO: сей бѣ, which can be rather confusing).
ALSO NOTE: In the Ostrog Bible script, the Kendema was also used both as a combining and a stand-alone character to indicate marginal readings or comments. See EXAMPLE.
It is important for type designers to make a visual distinction betweeen the DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT (KENDEMA) and the IZHE TITLO. The Kendema has a more horizontal appearance, with the two lines at an angle closer to the horizontal plain, while the Izhe Titlo has the two lines more vertically alligned. In most printed sources there is little or no distinction, but in the manuscript tradition it is usually quite clear which glyph is intended.
ALEKSANDR: The Kendema is used over the Izhitsa as well as in some other instances, for example, to indicate the dual of some words, or as a scripture verse divider, as in the Ostrog Bible. In some early manuscripts, we also find the Kendema used over the i; in Russian texts, we use the diaresis over the i, in accordance with existing Unicode standards.
YURI: Do you have any examples that you could give me where a kendema over an izhitsa gives the dual of some words?
|0308||◌̈||COMBINING DIERESIS (TREMA)||This character is used to produce the two dots over the i. It is NOT to be used as the KENDEMA or COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER I.||◌̈||◌̈||◌̈||◌̈||◌̈|
|A67C||◌꙼||COMBINING CYRILLIC KAVYKA||This represents a KAVYKA as a combining diacritical mark. It can also be used to indicate an alternative reading to part of a word (such as a different gender or grammatical case ending).||◌꙼||◌꙼||◌꙼||◌꙼||◌꙼|
|A67E||꙾||CYRILLIC KAVYKA||Used to mark off a word that has an alternative reading (typically placed in the margin). This is the non-combining form of the character.||꙾||꙾||꙾||꙾||꙾|
Characters used in traditional texts.
|00A0||NON-BREAKING HALF SPACE||NIKITA: The NON-BREAKING HALF SPACE is used extensively in the Poluustav script to separate enclitics (both proclitics and postclitics), prepositions, participles and punctuation that follows a letter-titlo. It is never used in modern Slavonic typography.
ALEKSANDR & YURI: The NON-BREAKING HALF SPACE is used in the Poluustav script to closely tie together [proclitic] prepositions with nouns, particles with preceding words, and enclitic accents.
|002E||.||FULL STOP, PERIOD||.||.||.||.||.|
|0387||·||GREEK ANO TELEIA (ELEVATED PERIOD)||The GREEK ANO TELEIA (ELEVATED PERIOD) is used extensively in the Ostrog Bible, printed by Ivan Fedorov in 1581. It is essentially a “soft period” or a partial stop. As an alternative, the following character can be used (but it seems that the ANO TELEIA is a better choice). See: SAMPLE1, SAMPLE2, SAMPLE3.||·||·||·||·||·|
|00B7||·||MIDDLE DOT (PERIOD CENTERED)||This may be used as an alternative to the previous character, although the ANO TELEIA seems like a better choice.||·||·||·||·||·|
|2022||•||BULLET||The Bullet is used as a Large Period, which is used extensively in Ustav and Poluustav era manuscripts. It was typically used (for example) in Psalters, where it was inserted into places in the text that are breaking points in musical phrases, or in a psalm verse where the reader intoned the first half, and the choir would sing the second half.||•||•||•||•||•|
|2E34||⸴||RAISED COMMA||The RAISED COMMA was used mostly in the Ustav era, but also ocassionally in the Poluustav era, where it is found in many early printed books, including the Ostrog Bible. Just as in Greek usage, it is used as a “soft comma” or a partial pause.||⸴||⸴|
|003A||:||COLON||This character is used as the partial stop in Church Slavonic.||:||:||:||:||:|
|003B||;||SEMICOLON||NIKITA: This CAN be used to represent the question mark in Church Slavonic, but it is technically inaccurate (see below).
Instead, one should use the codepoint selected for the GREEK QUESTION MARK, located at U+037E.
ALEKSANDR & YURI: This looks like a modern semicolon, but is actually the Greek form of the question mark, which is the form typically used in Slavonic typography. Based on Unicode recommendations, 003B and not 037E or 003F should be used for the Slavonic question mark.
|037E||;||GREEK QUESTION MARK||NIKITA: This SHOULD be used to represent the question mark in Church Slavonic. Alternatively, one can use the codepoint selected for the semicolon, located at U+003B, but this is a poor substitution because it is functionally a different punctuation mark. (I am at variance with Aleksandr’s and Yuri’s position regarding this character.)||;||;||;||;||;|
|0021||!||EXCLAMATION MARK||The exclamation point and question mark are modern western characters which were gradually introduced into the later Synodal Era publications.||!||!||!||!||!|
|003F||?||QUESTION MARK||The exclamation point and question mark are modern western characters which were gradually introduced into the later Synodal Era publications. The Question Mark (003F) should not be used to encode the Slavonic Question Mark (003B), which looks like a modern semicolon.||?||?||?||?||?|
|Ornamental punctuation was a unique feature of the Ustav and early Poluustav traditions, but sadly it gave way to standard punctuation by the time that the printed tradition became normative. Most of these symbols had specific idiomatic usages and were not used randomly. — For type designers, the majority of these symbols can already be found in various language scripts scattered throughout the BMP (Basic Multilingual Plane), and their usage can be adapted or improvised. (See SAMPLE1, SAMPLE2.)|
|Ւ||SCRIPTURE READING/PERICOPE DIVIDER||NIKITA: The four SCRIPTURE READING/PERICOPE DIVIDER symbols have not been proposed for inclusion in the Unicode standard. It is likely that these symbols can be constructed as composite characters using OpenType features. Documentation for their usage can be found HERE<add link>.
ALEKSANDR & YURI: The following four glyphs were used in Ustav and Poluustav manuscripts and early printed Gospel and Epistle books to indicate the divisions of the appointed readings. (This system has not been studied thoroughly, and more research should be done.) Because of their special function, they warrant being encoded as standalone characters. We propose to include them in the Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs block of Unicode, following the Typikon symbols. (We leave unassigned space between the Marks Chapter Symbol and these characters because if the Variation Sequences are not encoded, four additional Marks Chapter Symbols will need to be encoded in this block. See the Roadmap on Variation Sequences, Part III, section 4.)
|Փ||SCRIPTURE READING/PERICOPE DIVIDER|
|Ք||SCRIPTURE READING/PERICOPE DIVIDER|
|Օ||SCRIPTURE READING/PERICOPE DIVIDER|
|2053||⁓||SWUNG DASH||(Spear) Used for pragraph endings.||⁓|
|223B||∻||HOMOTHETIC||(Spear with Two Dots) Used for paragraph endings. See also 034B for the combining form.||∻|
|223C||∼||SQUARED FOUR DOT PUNCTUATION||An Ustav era decoration, used for sentence or line endings.||∼|
|223D||∽||TILDE OPERATOR||An Ustav era decoration, used for sentence or line endings.||∽|
|2241||≁||NOT TILDE||An Ustav era decoration, used for sentence or line endings.||≁|
|271A||✚||HEAVY GREEK CROSS (TELEIA)||An Ustav era full stop, usually found at the ends of major sections of readings, and at the ends of chapters. – Perhaps this character warrants different placement or its own codepoint, especially if it can be documented. (The TELEIA actually has a more distinctive look than the HEAVY GREEK CROSS.) – If it can be documented, this character should be proposed for inclusion in the Supplemental Punctuation block.||✚|
|2213||∓||MINUS OR PLUS SIGN||(Teleia with Spear) An Ustav era full stop (a variation of the Teleia above. If it can be documented, this character should be proposed for inclusion in the Supplemental Punctuation block.||∓|
|2056||⁖||THREE DOT PUNCTUATION||(Three Dots Variant 1)||⁖|
|10FB||჻||GEORGIAN PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR (REVERSED THREE DOT PUNCTUATION)||(Three Dots Variant 2) This character already exists in Unicode, in the Georgian range.
ALEKSANDR: If this character can be sufficiently documented, it should be proposed for inclusion in the Supplemental Punction block as Reversed Three Dot Punctuation.
|2E2A||⸪||TWO DOTS ABOVE ONE DOT PUNCTUATION||⸪|
|2E2B||⸫||ONE DOT ABOVE TWO DOTS PUNCTUATION||⸫|
|2056 + 2053||⁖⁓||Three Dot Punctuation +
|(Three Dots with Spear) Used for paragraph endings, and occasionally for endings of sentences within paragraphs. This character is best treated as a digraph, perhaps with some kerning.||⁖⁓|
|205E||⁞||VERTICAL FOUR DOTS||(Four Dots)||⁞|
|2058||⁘||FOUR DOT PUNCTUATION||(Four Dots Variant 1) This can be used as a final section marker or as a reference mark (a secondary asterisk).||⁘|
|205B||⁛||FOUR DOT MARK||This can be used for the FOUR COMMAS.||⁛|
|2E2C||⸬||SQUARED FOUR DOT PUNCTUATION||This can be used as a final section marker or as a reference mark (a secondary asterisk).||⸬|
|2059||⁙||FIVE DOT PUNCTUATION||(Five Dots) This can be used as a final section marker or as a reference mark (a secondary asterisk).||⁙|
|2E2D||⸭||FIVE DOT MARK||This can be used as a final section marker or as a reference mark (a secondary asterisk). (This is a duplication of the previous character.)||⸭|
|203B||※||REFERENCE MARK||(Diagonal Dotted Cross) This can be used as a final section marker or as a reference mark (a secondary asterisk).||※|
|205C||⁜||DOTTED CROSS||(Dotted Cross) This can be used as a final section marker or as a reference mark (a secondary asterisk).||⁜|
|002A||*||ASTERISK||(See also the following character.)||*||*||*||*||*|
|A673||꙳||SLAVONIC ASTERISK||There appears to be no convincing reason why this character warrants its own codepoint and how it differs from U+002A. However, since the shape of the Slavonic asterisk is noticably different from the modern form, it is perhaps advantageous to use this specifically traditional form. Moreover, since this character is also used in service books to separate phrases for hymns called Prosomoia (Podobny), there is perhaps an advantage to using a character with a separate function from the modern asterisk. (See SAMPLE1, SAMPLE2.)||꙳||꙳||꙳||꙳||꙳|
|2720||✠||MALTESE CROSS||This symbol was used in some of the printed editions of Ivan Fedorov, particularly in the Psaltyr and the Apostol. Its usage is confined to Poluustav fonts. (It was used to indicate the introductory text which a reader used to begin a Scripture reading, whenever it differs from the actual text of the Scriptures; these introductory words were placed at the bottom of the page in the margin, not on the side margin.)
ALEKSANDR: The “Maltese Cross” glyph was used in several early printed books for a variety of reasons. In many Gospels it was used like an asterisk to indicate instructions in the margins concerning how to introduce the liturgical readings. In the introduction to one of the early Psalters of Ivan Fedorov, it was used to compare and contrast different spellings of words. It is also used in the Trebnik of Metropolitan Peter (Mohyla).
|2626||☦||ORTHODOX CROSS||This is the only character included in the Unicode Slavonic Range that has no value and is purely ornamental. The Orthodox Cross was a symbol that occasionally was used as decoration in Ustav manuscripts, but it was rare. By the time of the Poluustav tradition, it was informally considered “forbidden” to print the Cross by means of moveable type (although we do see the “Maltese-style” Cross in some of the early editions of the Apostol and Evangelie). Only after the reforms of Patriarch Nikon (the Synodal Era) do we see the Orthodox Cross (and iconographic illustrations) in printed books.||☦||☦||☦||☦||☦|
|(||LEFT PARENTHESIS||)||RIGHT PARENTHESIS||The parentheses and square brackets are not used in traditional Ustav and Poluustav typography. Their use is primarily confined to Synodal Era publications, but they are also found occasionally in many Old Ritualist reprints.||( )||( )||( )||( )||( )|
|[||LEFT SQUARE BRACKET||]||RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET||Brackets, which are functionally the same as Parenthesis in Church Slavonic, and are used interchangeably (but almost never together in the same printed source), have a very low frequency of usage.||[ ]||[ ]||[ ]||[ ]||[ ]|
|◌||DOTTED CIRCLE||○||WHITE CIRCLE||These may be used as blank characters in the upper and lower cases for demonstrating the placement of superscript characters and titla in instructional materials.||◌ ○||◌ ○||◌ ○||◌ ○||◌ ○|
|◌᷁||COMBINING DOTTED ACUTE ACCENT||◌᷀||COMBINING DOTTED GRAVE ACCENT||The COMBINING DOTTED ACUTE ACCENT is used in the Ustav manuscript tradition and in the Ostrog Bible to indicate marginal references or comments. The COMBINING DOTTED GRAVE ACCENT is undocumented, but included by Kostić et al. (2009).
YURI: Do you feel that these are actually justifiable on their own or are we including them because Kostic did? If it is the second, then I am not certain that this is the best approach to take.
NIKITA: I am in favor of including these, since they are attested in the Ostrog Bible and successive editions of the Scriptures.
|◌᷁ ◌᷀||◌᷁ ◌᷀||◌᷁ ◌᷀||◌᷁ ◌᷀||◌᷁ ◌᷀|
|—||—||(Left Margin Mark) If it can be documented, this character should be proposed for inclusion in the Supplemental Punctuation block.|
|—||—||(Right Margin Mark) If it can be documented, this character should be proposed for inclusion in the Supplemental Punctuation block.|
Characters included for use in modern academic texts (and for textual markup).
|«||LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK||»||RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK||« »||« »||« »||« »||« »|
|/||SLASH/SOLIDUS||\||BACK-SLASH/REVERSE SOLIDUS||/ \||/ \||/ \||/ \||/ \|
|007C|||||VERTICAL LINE||This could be used in grammar books to separate roots and case endings.||||||||||||||||
|002D||-||HYPHEN-MINUS||The HYPHEN at the end of a line is used only in Synodal Era Church Slavonic, and its placement is typically lower, on the baseline instead of vertically centered. While Synodal Era texts typically have a lower frequency of usage of the HYPHEN than modern texts do (in order to help the reader avoid confusion), the use of this glyph as a word separator within a line (for example: “церковно-славянскій”) is quite rare and very recent in usage.||-||-||-||-||-|
|005F||_||“UNDERSCORE” LOW-LINE||In Synodal Slavonic, the Underscore is used for Hyphenation. However, since “auto hyphenation” is a function tied to the HYPHEN character (above), it is not recommended to use the UNDERSCORE as a hyphen. Instead, typeface designers should simply move the position of the hyphen lower, to appear like an underscore.||_||_||_||_||_|
|‘||LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK||’||RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK||Quotation marks should not be used to encode the KAVYKA, PAEROK or other characters.||‘ ’||‘ ’||‘ ’||‘ ’||‘ ’|
|201A||‚||SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK||‚||‚||‚||‚||‚|
|“||LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK||”||RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK||“ ”||“ ”||“ ”||“ ”||“ ”|
|201E||„||DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK||„||„||„||„||„|
|2020||†||DAGGER||(Cross) This character should only be included in modern academic fonts.||†|
|0482||҂||CYRILLIC THOUSANDS SIGN||In the Ustav era (only), this symbol was usually attached to the lower left side of the letters, forming a composite character.||҂||҂||҂||҂||҂|
|20DD||⃝||COMBINING ENCLOSING CIRCLE (тма)|| The higher numbers, which are graphically formed by using “encircled letters”, are almost exclusively found in Ustav manuscripts; all later textual traditions simply use words to express the higher numbers.
The COMBINING ENCLOSED CIRCLE, which was previously encoded for another usage, has been adapter for Church Slavonic as the “combining ten thousands sign” (the symbol for “myriads”). (It would be more convenient if this character were renamed as “COMBINING CYRILLIC TEN THOUSANDS SIGN”, but we cannot do this, as it is also used for a previously assigned function.)
|25EF||◯||LARGE CIRCLE (тма, Non-combining Ten Thousands Sign)||Non-combining variants of the numerical symbols are required for standalone usage, for example in manuals such as this one and in examples, such as, “Church Slavonic uses a letter inclosed in the symbol ◯ to designate tens of thousands”.||◯||◯||◯||◯||◯|
|0488||҈||COMBINING CYRILLIC HUNDRED THOUSANDS SIGN (легеѡ́нъ, или несвѣ́дь)||(Unfortunately, non-combining versions of the other numerical characters do not exist.)||҈||҈||҈||҈||҈|
|0489||҉||COMBINING CYRILLIC MILLIONS SIGN (леѡ́дръ)||҉||҉||҉||҉||҉|
|A670||꙰||COMBINING CYRILLIC TEN MILLIONS SIGN (вранъ)||꙰||꙰||꙰||꙰||꙰|
|A671||꙱||COMBINING CYRILLIC HUNDRED MILLIONS SIGN (коло́да)||꙱||꙱||꙱||꙱||꙱|
|A672||꙲||COMBINING CYRILLIC THOUSAND MILLIONS SIGN (тма темъ)||This character exists only in combination with the letter Az to indicate one thousand million (one billion) as а꙲.||꙲||꙲||꙲||꙲||꙲|
|(0483)||◌҃||COMBINING CYRILLIC TITLO (NUMBER TITLO)||(see this character above, section 5, General Titla Glyphs)||◌҃||◌҃||◌҃||◌҃||◌҃|
|1F540||Ꚙ||CIRCLED CROSS POMMY||Used for Typikon Symbol Great Feast. This character is currently in
Stage 5 of balloting for inclusion in the Unicode standard; see n3772 for more information.
The Typicon symbols were not used in the Ustav period. Their earliest appearance is in the Regulations of Nikon of the Black Mountain, an 11th Century document, but they did not appear in Church Slavonic documents until later. This symbol always appears in red.
|1F541||ꚙ||CROSS POMMY WITH HALF-CIRCLE BELOW||Used for Typikon Symbol Vigil-rank Feast. This character is currently in Stage 5 of balloting for inclusion in the Unicode standard; see n3772 for more information. This symbol always appears in red.||🕁||🕁||🕁||🕁||🕁|
|1F542||Ꚛ||CROSS POMMY||Used for Typikon Symbol Polyeleos-rank Feast. This character is currently in Stage 5 of balloting for inclusion in the Unicode standard; see n3772 for more information. This symbol always appears in red.||🕂||🕂||🕂||🕂||🕂|
|1F543||ꚛ||NOTCHED LEFT SEMICIRCLE WITH 3 DOTS||[Placed in a left outer page margin] - Great Doxology Feast symbol (red ink), or Special Simple (Hexasticheraric) Service symbol (black ink). This character is currently in Stage 5 of balloting for inclusion in the Unicode standard; see n3772 for more information.||🕃||🕃||🕃||🕃||🕃|
|1F544||ꚜ||NOTCHED RIGHT SEMICIRCLE WITH 3 DOTS||[Placed in a right outer page margin] - Great Doxology Feast symbol (red ink), or Special Simple (Hexasticheraric) Service symbol (black ink). See the proposal. – In modern usage, the two different directions of this symbol can potentially be used in single-color printing to differentiate between the more traditional red and black forms of this symbol (which indicate different usages in the Typicon).||🕄||🕄||🕄||🕄||🕄|
|1F545||ꚝ||MARK’S CHAPTER SYMBOL||This glyph represents the Chapters of Mark the Monk or the “Marcian Chapters” (Марковы главы), which are included in the Menaia, Triodia and the Typicon. These chapters provide instructions for important feasts when they coincide with Sundays or other feasts or important commemorations. The symbol is placed in the margin to draw the eye to the reading. The symbol was not found in the Ustav period, as it was a later invention, but the opportunity may be used to include the similar “M-R” ligature in Ustav fonts, where it was used in the manuscript tradition to abbreviate the word “имярекъ” (“say the name here”). — This character has been proposed for inclusion in Unicode. See proposal.
Variant forms are presented HERE<add link>. These appear only in Poluustav typography.
|MARK’S CHAPTER SYMBOL (ALT1, ALT2, etc.)||There are a number of variant forms of this character which can be accessed at ALT1, ALT2, etc. <verify>|
Compiled by Nikita Simmons, Aleksandr Andreev and Yuri Shardt, 2011, revised 2012.